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last modified 2009-05-20 11:59

Abstracts received

first-name:: Gerard

last-name:: ANCELLET

institute:: LATMOS, UPMC/UVSQ/CNRS

country:: France

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-France

title-1:: Tropospheric Ozone Variability above Greenland during the POLARCAT-France campaign

abstract:: Tropospheric ozone distributions above Greenland can be analyzed using airborne observations made by the French ATR-42 during the POLARCAT summer campaign. The work is based both on ozone lidar and in-situ measurements. Daily profiles are also available from a lidar operated at the aircraft base in Kangerlussuaq (67N, 50W) on the West coast of Greenland. The latter can be compared to similar data collected at Summit (72N, 40W). The data analysis allows a first estimate of the relative influence of frequent stratospheric intrusions and of summer ozone formation in the North American, Asian and even European plumes.

lead-author:: G. Ancellet, LATMOS, Universite P. et M. Curie/UVSQ/CNRS, Paris, France

co-authors:: 'R. Adam de Villiers; Universite P. et M. Curie/UVSQ/CNRS; Paris; France'; 'F. Ravetta; Universite P. et M. Curie/UVSQ/CNRS; Paris; France'; 'K. Law; Universite P. et M. Curie/UVSQ/CNRS; Paris; France';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Jay

last-name:: Al-Saadi

institute:: NASA

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: Steve

last-name:: Arnold

institute:: University of Leeds

country:: UK

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT Europe

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: Tim

last-name:: Bates

institute:: NOAA

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ICEALOT

title-1:: Aerosol Chemical and Physical Properties Over an Ice-Free Region of the Arctic During the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT)

abstract:: Atmospheric aerosol particles accumulate during the winter and spring in the Arctic resulting in a phenomenon referred to as “Arctic Haze”. Measurements of aerosol properties are needed to assess the sources of these particles and their impact on climate. During March and April of 2008, an International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic Lower Troposphere (ICEALOT) was conducted aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas from 41-80°N. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol measured during the experiment. FLEXPART emission sensitivities are used to divide the cruise track into five regions based on emission sources. Sulfate was the dominant anthropogenic aerosol component in all regions sampled although during periods of high wind speeds sea salt dominated the submicrometer mass. The “Arctic Haze” measured during ICEALOT was a well aged (uni-modal) acidic aerosol with sulfate comprising 62% of the non-sea-salt submicrometer aerosol mass. http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/Field/icealot/index.html

lead-author:: Tim Bates, NOAA/PMEL, Seattle, WA

co-authors:: 'P.K. Quinn; NOAA/PMEL; Seattle; WA'; 'D. Coffman; NOAA/PMEL; Seattle; WA'; 'D.S. Covert; University of Washington; Seattle; WA'; 'J.F. Burkhart; NILU; Norway';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Ellen

last-name:: Baum

institute:: Clean Air Task Force

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: SPAC

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: Terje

last-name:: Berntsen

institute:: Dep. of Geosciences, University of Oslo

country:: Norway

polarcat-project:: None

title-1:: Modeling of Black Carbon in air and snow, last 130 years; implications for radiative forcing

abstract:: The transport of Black Carbon (BC) in the atmosphere and the deposition of BC on snow surfaces for the last 130 years, with special emphasis on the last 8 years, are modeled with the Oslo CTM2 model. In addition regional contribution to BC deposition on snow in the polar region is evaluated for some years. The model results are compared with observations including our own recent measurement of BC in snow. Radiative forcing due to the direct effect as well as the snow-albedo effect is also calculated. Oslo CTM2 is an offline chemical transport model with T42 horizontal resolution using meteorological data from the IFS model at ECMWF. The scheme for BC includes hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles, as well as emissions from fossil fuel, biofuel and open biomass burning. Data on snow fall, melt and evaporation from ECMWF are used to generate and remove snow layers in each grid box. In these snow layers the amounts of deposited BC are stored, and concentrations of BC in each snow layer are calculated. Recent model studies have indicated that models in general are underestimating the build-up of BC in the Arctic during winter and spring. Based on calculations with the M7 microphysical module we introduce regionally and seasonally varying ageing times for BC. With these changes the seasonal cycle of BC in the air agrees much better with observations from the high Arctic. For the period 1870-2000 time slice simulations are done every 10th year. The period is simulated with constant meteorological data for the year 2000-2001 and vertical resolution of 40 levels. The emission data used is from Bond [1] for fossil fuel and biofuel, and data from Ito and Penner for open biomass burning. The results are compared with available BC measurements from ice cores, air and snow. During the years 2006-2008 several measurements of BC concentrations in snow in the Arctic region have been done, showing significant spatial variability. Within the large spread in the observations of BC concentration in snow, the model gives results that are consistent with the observations. In addition to evaluating total effect of BC in snow and its radiative effects, regional contribution to BC deposition on snow in the Arctic region are calculated. The largest contributor is Russia, followed by EU17, North America, and China. In the historical period, the share of emissions between these regions differs from the present situation, with much higher contributions from North America and Western Europe as emissions from fossil fuels were respectively 3 and 2 times larger in 1920-30 than at present.

lead-author:: Terje Berntsen, Dep. of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Norway

co-authors:: 'R.B. Skeie; CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research \xe2\x80\x93 Oslo '; 'G. Myhre; CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research \xe2\x80\x93 Oslo '; 'S. Gerland; The Norwegian Polar Institute'; 'C. A. Pedersen; The Norwegian Polar Institute'; 'J. Str\xc3\xb8m; The Norwegian Polar Institute';

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Andreas

last-name:: Beyersdorf

institute:: NASA Langley Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Aerosol Characteristics in the Arctic Atmosphere as Measured by the NASA DC-8

abstract:: In situ aerosol measurements are presented from on board the NASA DC-8 during ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites). A suite of aerosol instruments were installed on the DC-8 to measure the concentration, size distribution, optical properties, and composition of aerosols and clouds. Flights were flown out of Fairbanks, Alaska during the spring and out of Cold Lake, Canada during summer. The spring flights measured instances of Arctic haze which result from the long range transport of pollution from mid-latitude source regions. These included flights to the North Pole and to Thule, Greenland. During the summer deployment, flights were flown to characterize emissions from Canadian forest fires. In this presentation, we document and contrast aerosol properties in the Arctic region during the spring and summer seasons. In addition, individual pollution and biomass burning plumes in the sub-Arctic are analyzed in order to determine the sources of Arctic aerosols.

lead-author:: Andreas Beyersdorf, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

co-authors:: 'B.E. Anderson; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; USA'; 'L. Thornhill; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; USA'; 'E. Winstead; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; USA'; 'T. Lathem; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; GA; USA '; 'J. Dibb; University of New Hampshire; Durham; NH; USA'; 'E. Scheuer; University of New Hampshire; Durham; NH; USA'; 'J. Jimenez; University of Colorado; Boulder; CO; USA '; 'M. Cubison; University of Colorado; Boulder; CO; USA '; 'Y. Kondo; University of Tokyo; Tokyo; Japan';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Quentin

last-name:: Bourgeois

institute:: EPFL

country:: Switzerland

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-France

title-1:: Aerosol climatology in the Arctic from CALIOP and ECHAM5-HAMMOZ

abstract:: Climate is rapidly changing in the Arctic. There is an increasing body of evidences that aerosols in the Arctic, such as sulfates, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) may play a substantial role. Large uncertainties remain however on the sources and properties of aerosols found in the Arctic. While Europe has been recognized for a long time as a major source of pollution, recent works have suggested that anthropogenic emissions from Asia and forest fires in boreal regions may also substantially contribute. We report here a study on the long range transport of aerosols from the mid-latitudes towards the Arctic. We will present timeseries of several data set located on the expected pathways of pollution traveling from the mid-latitudes into the Arctic, including vertically resolved attenuated backscatter from CALIOP, aerosol optical depth measurements from MODIS, CO vertical profiles from the MOZAIC program, and CO concentrations integrated over the column from IASI. We will then compare these observations to results obtained from simulations performed with the fully coupled model of aerosol-chemistry-climate ECHAM5-HAMMOZ in which the FLAMBE biomass burning inventory for 2008 has been implemented in order to assess the model’s ability to reproduce long range transport of pollution.

lead-author:: Quentin Bourgeois, EPFL, CH

co-authors:: 'Isabelle Bey; EPFL; CH';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Charles

last-name:: Brock

institute:: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory

country:: United States

polarcat-project:: ARCPAC

title-1:: Characteristics, sources, transport, and removal of aerosols in the Alaskan Arctic in April 2008

abstract:: Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols, including microphysical, chemical, and optical properties, were made in the Alaskan Arctic during April 2008 as part of NOAA's Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Properties affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project, a POLARCAT activity. Agricultural burning in the border region between Kazakhstan and southern Russia, and extensive wildfires in far eastern Siberia, produced large plumes of light-absorbing smoke, possibly mixed with anthropogenic pollutants, that were advected over periods of many days to the Arctic. These biomass burning plumes were superimposed upon aerosol and reactive gas concentrations that were lower, but typical of those identified by long-term surface monitoring sites as corresponding to “Arctic haze”. Preliminary analyses show that this background haze aerosol was composed primarily of highly aged, accumulation mode particles which contained sulfates and soot, characteristic of industrial sources, but also components identified as originating from biomass burning. Depletion of particle concentrations and mass within the shallow surface temperature inversion over the sea ice suggests a possible role for precipitation scavenging of the aerosol and deposition to the surface. However, in general there were few indications of substantial removal of aerosol particles from the free troposphere by precipitation scavenging.

lead-author:: Charles A. Brock, Earth System Research Laboratory, Natinoal Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado, USA

co-authors:: 'The ARCPAC Science Team';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: John

last-name:: Burkhart

institute:: NILU

country:: Norway

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT

title-1:: POLARCAT contributions to the International Polar Year

abstract:: The Arctic system is particularly sensitive to climate variability and filled with uncertainties. Furthermore complex feedback mechanisms - most being simply unknown - seem to be amplified in this environment. During the International Polar Year (IPY) a number of international partnerships were formed to establish the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT). The POLARCAT projects cooperated with support from several national funding agencies to undertake the most comprehensive assessment of air pollution impacts on the Arctic to date. In spring and summer of 2008 more than 20 institutes from ten nations participated in intensive aircraft, ship, and station-based campaigns with accompanying efforts from the satellite and modeling communities to provide near real time products for mission planning and analysis. These campaigns provided an assessment of the role that tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and transport play in the Arctic. The spring campaigns focused on anthropogenic pollution, while the summer campaigns targeted biomass burning. During the spring of 2008, over 80 flights were flown by five different aircraft as part of the ARCTAS, ISDAC, ARCPAC, and French POLARCAT campaigns, the ICEALOT campaign commissioned the R/V Knorr to travel over 12,000 km, and numerous specialty satellite and modelling products were developed with near real time distribution. These same products were again used for flight planning and forecasting in the summer when an additional 50+ flights were flown by the ARCTAS, French POLARCAT, Siberian YAK, and GRACE campaigns. Several ground based stations and the Siberian TROICA campaign also conducted intensive operating periods (IOPs). We present an overview of the individual campaigns, anticipated products, and initial "quicklooks" from these activities.

lead-author:: John Burkhart, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway

co-authors:: 'Bates; T'; 'Brock; CA'; 'Clerbaux; C'; 'Crawford; J H'; 'Dibb; J E'; 'Law; K'; 'Quinn; P'; 'Schlager; H'; 'Singh; H B'; 'Stohl; A';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes']

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first-name:: Sungyeon

last-name:: Choi

institute:: Georgia Institute of Technology

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Modeling halogen-driven ozone depletion events at northern high latitudes during spring 2008

abstract:: Halogen-driven ozone losses in springime Arctic boundary layer are investigated using satellite bromine monoxide (BrO) observations and a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model for March and April 2008. The result is compared to ground-based and in-situ measurements during ARCTAS spring campaign. The tropospheric BrO column content in the total BrO vertical column density (VCD) was estimated using two assumptions on the stratospheric BrO VCD distributions. Correlations of tropospheric BrO VCD to ARCTAS in-situ measurements shows that the estimated tropospheric BrO column is related to observed ozone depletion events and bromine species in the boundary layer. The satellite derived tropospheric BrO column is used to constrain bromine radicals in the model. Ozone level is simulated for March and April 2008, and compared to ground-based and airborne ozone measurements. The model captures general spatial variations of ozone depletion events, but is not yet capable of reproducing all the observed features.

lead-author:: Sungyeon Choi, Georgia Institue of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

co-authors:: 'Tao Zeng; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; USA'; 'Ja-ho Koo; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; USA'; 'Yuhang Wang; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; USA'; 'Thomas Kurosu; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; USA'; 'Kelly Chance; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; USA'; 'Andreas Richter; Institute of Environmental Physics; University of Bremen; Germany'; 'Alexei Rozanov; Institute of Environmental Physics; University of Bremen; Germany'; 'Brad Pierce; NOAA National Environmental Satellite; Data; and Information Services; USA'; 'Murali Natarajan; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Jassim Al-Saadi; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Greg Huey; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; USA'; 'Andy Neuman; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory; USA'; 'Jack Dibb; Institute for the Study of Earth; Ocean; and Space; University of New Hampshire; USA'; 'John Hair; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Andrew Weinheimer; National Center for Atmospheric Research; USA'; 'Tom Ryerson; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory; USA'; 'Samuel Oltmans; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory; USA'; 'Anne Thompson; Department of Meteorology; Pennsylvania State University; USA'; 'Dave MacTavish; Environmental Canada; Canada'; 'William Simpson; Department of Chemistry and Geophysical Institute; University of Alaska Fairbanks; USA';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Antony

last-name:: Clarke

institute:: University of Hawaii

country:: United States

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Arctic Aerosol during ARCTAS Spring and Summer: Microphysics, Chemistry and Optics

abstract:: Over 50 NASA flights during the spring and summer of 2008 were made in the Arctic aboard the NASA P3b, B200 and DC8 as part of POLARCAT in an effort to understand atmospheric constituents possibly linked to changes in the Arctic environment. Spring flights focused on the long-range transport of pollution aerosol and gases to the Arctic while the summer flights targeted boreal fires in Northern Canada. Characterizations of the microphysics, chemistry and optical properties of the aerosol were designed to establish properties related to sources and their direct and indirect radiative effects. Most flights were planned to allow linking these properties to observations possible from satellites and to model products. Here we will focus on related aerosol measurements from the diverse investigators on these platforms. These were designed to establish relations between the size, chemistry and spectral optical properties of the aerosol. This includes the role of light absorbing carbon (LAC) and the enhancement in shortwave absorption clearly linked to the organic fraction. The latter was greatly enhanced in the numerous fire plumes studies. Evolution of these properties, including the spectral single scatter albedo, was evident in fire plumes. Most aged Arctic aerosol tended to mono-modal sizes that were large enough to be effective as CCN at low supersaturation and to influence optical extinction, thereby providing the possibility of remotely sensing aged Arctic CCN from satellite. Aerosol intensive and extensive properties including their vertical distributions will also be discussed in the context of model products.

lead-author:: Antony Clarke, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822

co-authors:: 'TBD';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Jim

last-name:: Crawford

institute:: NASA Langley Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: An overview of POLARCAT intercomparison results.

abstract:: POLARCAT has enabled the joint deployment of airborne science platforms by multiple international partners during the spring and summer of 2008 as part of the International Polar Year. The intent of this cooperative effort is to provide atmospheric composition observations across the arctic with coverage much greater than would be possible by any individual group. The success of this strategy, however, depends on demonstrating consistency in common observations between participating platforms. Valuable flight hours were devoted to intercomparison activities to provide such an assessment of measurement consistency. To be presented is a summary of five wingtip-to-wingtip intercomparisons for the following pairs: NASA DC-8 vs. NASA P-3B, NOAA WP-3D vs. NASA DC-8, NOAA WP-3D vs. NASA P-3B, NASA DC-8 and DLR Falcon, and DLR Falcon vs. ATR Falcon. The compared species and parameters include key gas phase and aerosol quantities, e.g., O3, CO, H2O, particle number density, scattering, and absorption coefficients. These preliminary results will be further reviewed by the Tropospheric Airborne Measurement Evaluation Panel in July 2009 to establish recommendations for creating a unified POLARCAT airborne observational database.

lead-author:: Gao Chen, NASA Langley

co-authors:: 'Jim Crawford; NASA Langley'; 'Mary Kleb; NASA Langley'; 'Clyde Brown; NASA Langley'; 'Ashley Mertens; NASA Langley'; 'POLARCAT measurement teams';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Michael

last-name:: Cubison

institute:: University of Colorado

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: NASA ARCTAS

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: Jack

last-name:: Dibb

institute:: University of New Hampshire

country:: US

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS and Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogens at Summit, Greenland

title-1:: tbd

abstract:: depending on who else registers from the 2 projects I am prepared to talk about: BrO and related compounds as measured by DC8/NOAA P3 in April Long-range transport of smoke (and/or sulfate) in ARCTAS Overview of the DC-8 campaign in ARCTAS Findings on Br/HOx/Hg, etc at Summit in 2007 and 2008

lead-author:: Jack Dibb, UNH

co-authors:: 'could be many';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes', 'Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Sarah

last-name:: Doherty

institute:: Univ. of Washington

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: Soot in Arctic Snow

title-1:: Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and its Effect on Surface Albedo

abstract:: A survey of the black carbon (BC) content of Arctic snow is underway, updating and expanding the 1983/84 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples of snow are collected in spring when the entire winter snowpack is accessible. The samples are melted and filtered, and the filters are analyzed for absorptive impurities. Snow has been sampled on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, and sea ice as well as in forests. To date about one thousand snow samples have been collected from across the Arctic, including sites in Svalbard, Greenland, Canada, across northern Russia and from near the North Pole. The filters are examined with a spectrophotometer, scanning wavelengths 400-750 nm. The relative contributions of BC and soil dust to the absorption can be estimated from the spectral dependence of transmission. Calibration is achieved with use of a set of standard filters containing measured amounts of a commercial soot with a known mass absorption cross-section. Chemical analyses of filters and meltwater, input to a receptor model, are used to determine the sources of the soot from some of these samples. The effect of natural amounts of BC on snow albedo is small, and depends on the vertical variation of snow grain size, so it is computed with a radiative transfer model rather than measured. Nevertheless, some coincident measurements of spectral albedo and BC content are essential to test assumptions made in the modeling. Therefore, experiments are underway with artificial uniform snowpacks containing large amounts of soot, to obtain a large measurable reduction of albedo, allowing us to test the model-derived albedo change for a given snow soot concentration. Here we will present the preliminary results of these measurements, discuss them in the context of earlier measurements, and compare them to modeled values of soot in Arctic snow.

lead-author:: Sarah J. Doherty, Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

co-authors:: 'Stephen G. Warren; Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Washington; Seattle; Washington; USA'; 'Thomas C. Grenfell; Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Washington; Seattle; Washington; USA'; "Antony D. Clarke; Dept. of Oceanography; Univ. of Hawai'i; Honolulu; HI; USA"; 'Dean A. Hegg; Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Washington; Seattle; Washington; USA';

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic']

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first-name:: richard

last-name:: Dupont

institute:: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Reconstructing ozone chemistry during transport of boreal fire plumes over Northern Pacific with satellite, aircraft measurement, and modeling

abstract:: We examine tropospheric ozone production and loss in Siberian fire plumes transported over Northern Pacific during spring 2008 ARCTAS campaign using collocated O3 and CO profiles as measured by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and ozone from the Airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). High CO concentrations, over 200 ppbv, are observed in fire plumes as well as O3 concentrations ranging from less than 30 to more than 100 ppbv. These variations in ozone are linked to aerosols amounts as well as aircraft measurements of ozone precursors.

lead-author:: Richard DUPONT, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA

co-authors:: 'John WORDEN; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Institute of Technology; USA'; 'Brad PIERCE; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Marta Fenn; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Johnathan HAIR; NASA Langley Research Center; USA'; 'Murali NATARAJAN; NASA Langley Research Center; USA';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes', 'Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere', 'Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Richard

last-name:: Ferrare

institute:: NASA Langley Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Arctic aerosol properties derived from remote sensing measurements on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft

abstract:: The 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in April (Alaska) and June-July (Canada) by the Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Radiation Sciences Programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ARCTAS used chemical, aerosol, and radiative measurements from three research aircraft (DC-8, P-3, B-200) as well as satellite measurements to better understand the factors driving the rapid ongoing changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft for the ARCTAS mission. The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction at 532 nm and aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 532 and 1064 nm. The HSRL measurements of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization profiles are being used to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) evaluate the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, 3) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 4) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 5) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 6) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements. During the summer portion of ARCTAS, NASA’s ResearchScanning Polarimeter (RSP), a precursor to the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the Glory satellite scheduled for launch in 2009, measured the intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral (400 ‐ 2250 nm) and angular (±60° from nadir) range. RSP measurements are being used to obtain columnar retrievals of key aerosol (optical depth, location and width of both modes of a bimodal size distribution, refractive index) parameters.

lead-author:: Richard Ferrare, NASA Langley Research Center

co-authors:: 'Chris Hostetler; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'John Hair; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'Anthony Cook; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'Dave Harper; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'Mike Obland; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'Ray Rogers; NASA Langley Research Center'; 'Sharon Burton; SSAI'; 'Brian Cairns; Columbia Univ./NASA/GISS'; ''; '';

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic']

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first-name:: Jenny

last-name:: Fisher

institute:: Harvard University

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Arctic pollution sources and transport: an integrated analysis of carbon monoxide from ARCTAS, AIRS, and the GEOS-Chem model

abstract:: Despite its remoteness, the sparsely-populated Arctic region is a major receptor for midlatitudes pollution. Numerous studies have identified pollution transport pathways to the Arctic on the basis of model simulations; however, our ability to verify these pathways has been limited due to a paucity of long-term, spatially-dense Arctic data sets. Polar-orbiting satellites offer unique platforms for investigating pollutant source-receptor relationships, transport, and accumulation in the Arctic. We present here an integrated analysis of the sources and transport of Arctic pollution using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) to interpret satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in the context of in-situ aircraft measurements from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. We find that anthropogenic CO emissions from Europe and Asia are substantially underestimated in the model. Both Europe and Asia contribute to pollution accumulation at low altitudes, while at high altitude Asia is the dominant source of CO in the Arctic. The multi-year record from AIRS shows that April 2008 was characterized by increased CO export from Europe and lower-than average CO concentrations over Alaska.

lead-author:: Jenny Fisher, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.

co-authors:: 'DJ Jacob; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'MT Purdy; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'MA Kopacz; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'P Le Sager; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'BM Yantosca; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'CC Carouge; Harvard University; Cambridge; MA; U.S.A.'; 'J Warner; University of Maryland; Baltimore County; Baltimore; M.D.; U.S.A.'; 'GS Diskin; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; U.S.A.'; 'EJ Hyer; UCAR/Naval Research Laboratory; Monterey; CA; U.S.A.'; 'RL Batchelor; University of Toronoto; Toronto; Ontario; Canada';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes']

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first-name:: Jessica

last-name:: Gilman

institute:: NOAA ESRL and CIRES

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ICEALOT

title-1:: Trace Gas Measurements in the Arctic aboard the R/V Knorr during ICEALOT 2008: Evidence of long range transport of ozone depleted air masses.

abstract:: A chemically diverse set of VOCs and other trace gases were measured in situ aboard the R/V Knorr as part of the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic Lower Troposphere (ICEALOT) conducted in March and April 2008. These measurements have significantly expanded upon the spatial and temporal database of VOCs throughout the Arctic spring-time marine boundary layer. Previous studies in the Arctic have identified a unique set of chemical reactions which are responsible for sharp declines in both ozone (via reaction with bromine) and select VOCs (via chlorine and bromine oxidation). Chlorine oxidation of VOCs is evidenced by a marked decrease in the [n-Butane]/[iso-Butane] ratio. The [acetylene]/[benzene] ratio is sensitive to both chlorine and bromine oxidation. The high degree of correlation between the [acetylene]/[benzene] ratio with [ozone] (r2 = 0.96 for 550 data points collected >70 °N) indicates the prevalence of bromine oxidation throughout the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. FLEXPART simulations show that ozone depleted air masses encountered by the Knorr originated well within the Arctic Circle before being transported as far south as 52 °N. FLEXPART analyses are currently underway to determine if the reduction in ozone and the [acetylene]/[benzene] ratio can be quantitatively explained by the residence time of these air masses over first-year and/or multi-year ice. These and other results will be presented at the meeting.

lead-author:: Jessica B. Gilman, NOAA ESRL and CIRES, Boulder, CO, USA

co-authors:: 'Brian M. Lerner; NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'John F. Burkhart; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway'; 'William C. Kuster; NOAA ESRL; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Paul D. Goldan; NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Owen R. Cooper; NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Andreas Stohl; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway'; 'Eric J. Williams; NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Joost A. de Gouw; NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Boulder; CO; USA';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Larysa

last-name:: Istomina

institute:: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen

country:: Germany

polarcat-project:: not available

title-1:: The retrieval of aerosol optical thickness in Arctic region using dual-view AATSR measurements

abstract:: Aerosols can affect climate by direct and indirect climate forcing, and by changing the albedo of the surface via deposition on it. In Artic region this can result in changing of atmospheric circulations and melting of snow and ice coverage, which can affect the climate system of the whole planet. To understand the scale of such a forcing, one needs to know the amount of aerosol in Artic region. There are only few ground-based stations in Artcic, which can not give significant data coverage, but remote sensing can provide necessary amount of data. However, the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over bright snow and ice is a difficult task, because optical properties of these kinds of surface are highly variable and unknown, and even the small error in assumed surface leads to large error of resulting AOT. In current work a dual-view algorithm to retrieve AOT in Artic region has been established and validated. The algorithm consists of two main steps: 1. the discrimination of cloud/snow/open water 2. AOT retrieval over snow, ice or open water. For AOT retrieval over bright surface the advantage of AATSR observations, the dual-viewing geometry (nadir view 0° and forward view 55°), is used. Using the two views simultaneously makes it possible to exclude the unknown snow albedo from the retrieval, and only account for snow bidirectional reflection function (BRDF) shape. As snow BRDF we use a preassumed snow model, which is weighted by measured top-of-atmosphere reflectances, to diminish the effect of relief and to bring the model closer to reality. The retrieval has been applied to sequences of data for various Arctic haze events at some Artic sites such as Spitsbergen and Alaska. The results of AOT retrieval over snow and over open water show good correspondence to each other. The retrieved AOT has also been compared to ground-based measurements. The developed cloudscreening method has been validated against Micro Pulse Lidar Network data. The outcome of the retrieval – aerosol optical thickness – can be applied as atmospheric correction for the retrieval of snow optical and physical properties, as an input for transport and climatology models, in order to estimate the tempo of aerosol climate forcing and the contamination status of Arctic region.

lead-author:: Larysa Istomina, Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

co-authors:: 'W. von Hoyningen-Huene; Institute of Environmental Physics; University of Bremen; Germany'; 'A. Kokhanovsky; Institute of Environmental Physics; University of Bremen; Germany'; 'J. P. Burrows; Institute of Environmental Physics; University of Bremen; Germany';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Daniel

last-name:: Jacob

institute:: Harvard U.

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Sources of pollution to the Arctic: insights from ARCTAS and satellite observations

abstract:: We will use ARCTAS aircraft observations combined with satellite data and chemical transport models to gain new understanding of pollution sources to the North American Arctic.

lead-author:: Daniel Jacob, Harvard University

co-authors:: 'the ARCTAS Science Team';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere', 'Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Louisa

last-name:: Kramer

institute:: Michigan Technological University

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: Summit-Honrath

title-1:: Biomass-burning and anthropogenic impacts on arctic tropospheric chemistry at Summit, Greenland from July to November 2008

abstract:: Long-range transport of anthropogenic and biomass-burning emissions to the Arctic is important because of the resulting impact on ozone and ozone precursors within both the Arctic and downwind regions. Current understanding of the magnitude and seasonal variability of these impacts is limited. This is especially so at high-altitude locations, where the impact of lower-latitude anthropogenic emissions are expected to be larger than at sea level. To address this need, we have begun continuous in-situ measurements of nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at Summit, Greenland (3208 m altitude), for a 2-year period beginning June 2008. Here, we present measurements of NOx (NO and NO2), NOy (total reactive nitrogen species), PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate) and NMHC from July to mid-November 2008, along with simultaneous station measurements of ozone, CO and black carbon, in conjunction with analyses using the FLEXPART transport model to identify specific source regions of anthropogenic and biomass-burning emissions. We present measurements associated with long-range transport of biomass-burning emissions from forest fires in Canada. During a large forest fire event in the Northwest Territories of Canada in early August 2008, significantly elevated levels of CO, NOy, PAN and ozone impacted Summit over a 2-week period. We will also discuss a series of anthropogenic events from North America and Europe during the fall and winter months. The events in October, in particular, were strongly dominated by emissions from North America and coincided with the highest NOy levels observed during the measurement period.

lead-author:: Louisa Kramer, Dept. of Geological & Mining Engineering and Sciences/Atmospheric Sciences Program, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA

co-authors:: 'R. E. Honrath; Dept. of Geological & Mining Engineering and Sciences/Atmospheric Sciences Program; Michigan Technological University; Houghton; Michigan; USA'; 'D. Helmig; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; University of Colorado; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'J. Hueber; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; University of Colorado; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'S. Goodwin; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; University of Colorado; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'S. Oltmans; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'R. Schnell; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'J. Burkhart; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway'; 'A. Stohl; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Jesse

last-name:: Kroll

institute:: Aerodyne Research

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ICEALOT

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Terry

last-name:: Lathem

institute:: Georgia Institute of Technology

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: NASA ARCTAS

title-1:: CCN Closure and Droplet Growth Kinetics for Biomass Burning Aerosols Sampled in the Arctic during NASA ARCTAS: Unraveling the Importance of Organic Chemical Effects

abstract:: We present an overview of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements of fresh Canadian forest fire plumes sampled during the Summer phase of the 2008 NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. Comparisons are made to CCN measurements of Springtime pristine arctic air masses, arctic haze layers, and aged biomass burning plumes transported from the mid-latitudes, which were conducted during the Spring phase of the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns. CCN counters were deployed on the NASA DC-8, NASA P-3B, and NOAA WP-3D aircraft, and we combine the data from these aircraft platforms to provide a comprehensive assessment of the arctic atmosphere. Both CCN number concentration and droplet growth kinetics were assessed using theory to determine the influence of organic species on CCN activation and to identify potential droplet growth limitations, which would be expected if strong organic surfactants are present. The data indicate that organics have a strong influence on CCN activation and droplet growth kinetics, particularly for fresh biomass burning plumes and pollution layers transported from the mid-latitudes. A large fraction of the organic aerosols in biomass burning are water soluble and CCN active, and we demonstrate that CCN closure is dramatically improved for biomass burning regions (where organics dominate the fine aerosol mass) by simply incorporating organic solubility through a measured water-soluble organic carbon fraction. We also show significant kinetic limitations of droplet growth coincident with fresh biomass burning plumes and we correlate these kinetic limitations with the amount of insoluble organic material and infer effective water uptake coefficients from an instrument model. The comprehensive nature of the CCN measurements (taken from multiple platforms and across a wide geographic and temporal area) make this a valuable data set for constraining current uncertainties associated with predicting CCN and cloud droplet number concentrations for pollution-influenced Springtime and Summertime arctic air.

lead-author:: Terry L. Lathem, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

co-authors:: 'Richard H. Moore; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; Georgia; USA'; 'Bruce E. Anderson; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; Virginia; USA'; 'Athanasios Nenes; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; Georgia; USA'; 'The NASA ARCTAS Science Team';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic']

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first-name:: Kathy

last-name:: Law

institute:: LATMOS-CNRS

country:: France

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-France

title-1:: Origin of Pollution Plumes Transported to the Arctic during POLARCAT-France airborne campaigns

abstract:: During POLARCAT-France spring and summer field campaigns flights were made from Kiruna, northern Sweden during April 2008 and Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland in July 2008. The French ATR-42 aircraft equipped with aerosol/ozone lidars and in-situ measurements of cloud/aerosol properties and trace gases made measurements in polluted plumes of different origin. During spring 2008, anthropogenic plumes originating from Europe were observed as well as plumes from agricultural burning in eastern Europe/Russia and further east over Siberia. During summer 2008, anthropogenic and forest fire plumes plumes originating from North America and forest fire plumes from Siberia were sampled. Here, we discuss the origin of the sampled plumes based on their chemical composition and analysis of FLEXPART products as well as comparison with IASI CO distributions during the campaigns.

lead-author:: Kathy Law, LATMOS/IPSL-CNRS, U. Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France

co-authors:: 'G. Ancellet; J. Pelon; C. Clerbaux; M. Pommier; R. Adam de Villiers; F. Ravetta; LATMOS/IPSL-CNRS; U. Pierre and Marie Curie; Paris; France'; 'J.-F. Gayet; A. Schwarzenboeck; LaMP; CNRS/U. Blaise Pascal; Clermont Ferrand; France'; 'S. Turquety; LMD; Palaiseau; Paris; France'; 'J.-P. Paris; LSCE-CEA-CNRS; Gif-sur-Yvette; Paris; France'; 'J. Schneider; J. Schmale; S. Borrmann; Particle Chemistry Dept.; MPI-Chimie / U. Johannes Gutenberg; Mainz; Germany'; 'S. Arnold; S. Monks; U. Leeds; UK'; 'A. Stohl; NILU; Norway';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes', 'Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere', 'Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Jingqiu

last-name:: Mao

institute:: Harvard University

country:: United States

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Assessing the oxidation capacity in the polar spring

abstract:: We use a 3D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret the observation data collected on NASA DC-8 airplane during the first phase of Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. The first phase consists of nine flights by DC-8, which took place from April 1st to April 20th of 2008 and based on Fairbanks, Alaska. It is found that the discrepancy between observation and model for HOx (=OH+HO2) radicals in the free troposphere can be largely reconciled by incorporating the new HO2 uptake parameterization. Possible products of HO2 uptake to aerosol phase and the implication of HO2 uptake to the oxidation capacity of arctic region will be discussed.

lead-author:: Jingqiu Mao, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA, United States

co-authors:: 'D.J.Jacob;Harvard University; Cambridge;MA'; 'J.A.Fisher;Harvard University; Cambridge;MA'; 'R.M.Yantosca;Harvard University; Cambridge;MA'; 'P.Le Sager;Harvard University; Cambridge;MA'; 'C.C.Carouge;Harvard University; Cambridge;MA'; 'and ARCTAS Science Team';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Paola

last-name:: Massoli

institute:: Boston College / ARI Inc.

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ICEALOT

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Pommier

last-name:: Matthieu

institute:: LATMOS/IPSL-CNRS

country:: France

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-france

title-1:: Pollution impacts on Arctic O3 and CO distributions during POLARCAT summer campaign.

abstract:: The Arctic ozone budget is not well quantified and global models fail to reproduce seasonal cycles especially in summertime when anthropogenic and boreal forest fire emissions can contribute. One possible explanation is the underestimation of modelled ozone production in forest fires plumes. Long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution to the Arctic is also not well quantified. This study focuses on analysis of the POLARCAT summer campaign which took place in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland in July 2008. During the campaign different air masses were sampled including clean northerly air, polluted plumes originating from anthropogenic sources in North American and in Europe, and forest fire plumes from Siberia and Canada. These different transports were well observed by the IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) interferometer, onboard METOP-A. Measurements of O3 and CO collected by the ATR-42 aircraft as part of POLARCAT-France are used to validate the satellite measurements. Furthermore a more general validation procedure to compare IASI with ATR-42, DLR-Falcon and NASA DC8 CO and O3 data was developed. YAK flights in Siberia are also available for these comparisons. Both in-situ and satellite data are compared to results from the LMDz-INCA global chemistry model. The good global coverage from IASI and all regional flights allowed to improve understanding and to update CO emission sources and more particularly the forest fires impact in the model.

lead-author:: Matthieu Pommier, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR8190, LATMOS/IPSL, Paris, France

co-authors:: 'K.S. Law; UPMC Univ Paris 06; CNRS UMR8190; LATMOS/IPSL; Paris; France'; 'Clerbaux; UPMC Univ Paris 06; CNRS UMR8190; LATMOS/IPSL; Paris; France'; 'S. Turquety; Ecole Polytechnique; CNRS UMR 8539; LMD/IPSL; Palaiseau; France.'; 'H. Schlager; DLR; Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Oberpfaffenhofen; Germany'; 'G. Ancellet; UPMC Univ Paris 06; CNRS UMR8190; LATMOS/IPSL; Paris; France'; 'J-D. Paris; LSCE/IPSL; CEA-CNRS-UVSQ; Saclay; France.'; "P. N\xc3\xa9delec; Laboratoire d'A\xc3\xa9rologie; CNRS UMR5560; Toulosue; France."; 'A. J. Weinheimer; National Center for Atmospheric Research; Boulder; USA.'; 'G.S. SiskinNASA LaRC; MS 483; Hampton; USA.';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Joe

last-name:: McConnell

institute:: Desert Research Institute

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: None

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Alexis

last-name:: Merlaud

institute:: Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy

country:: Belgium

polarcat-project:: Kiruna 2008

title-1:: Airborne DOAS measurements during the Kiruna 2008 Spring campaign - First results

abstract:: A new instrument was installed onboard the Safire ATR-42 for the POLARCAT spring 2008 campaing in Kiruna. This instrument, namely the Airborne Limb Scattering Differential Optical Apsorption Spectrometer (ALS-DOAS) is based on a scanning telescope pointing to the limb behind a port of the plane and a grating UV-Visible spectrometer. Studying trace gases absorptions in the scattered light spectra measured with the instrument enables us to retrieve quantitative information on the distribution of these gases. We present here the work done for the data analysis, using the DOAS method, a radiative transfer model and an inversion algorithm. First troposheric columns and/or profiles are shown for NO2, BrO, O3 and H2CO.

lead-author:: Alexis Merlaud, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium

co-authors:: 'C. Fayt; Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy; Brussels; Belgium'; 'C. Hermans; Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy; Brussels; Belgium'; 'N. Theys; Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy; Brussels; Belgium'; 'M. De Mazi\xc3\xa8re; Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy; Brussels; Belgium'; 'M. Van Roozendael; Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy; Brussels; Belgium';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Andreas

last-name:: Minikin

institute:: DLR

country:: Germany

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT, ASTAR 2007, POLARCAT/GRACE

title-1:: Overview on results of airborne aerosol and trace gas measurements in the Arctic in March/April 2007 (ASTAR 2007 campaign)

abstract:: In order to improve knowledge on the properties, evolution and climate impact of the tropospheric aerosol and gas phase pollutants in the Arctic, two aircraft experiments have been performed from Longyearbyen/Svalbard: ASTAR (Arctic Study on Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation) 2004 (in May) and ASTAR 2007 (in March/April), using the AWI Dornier-228 in 2004 and the DLR Falcon research aircraft in 2007. In this contribution the main focus will be on an overview of results of the ASTAR 2007 experiment, which took place in a season where the Arctic troposphere in general is expected to be influenced by Arctic haze pollution. Observations during the measurement period revealed rather low aerosol number concentrations and no apparent Arctic haze event with exceptionally high aerosol concentrations and reduced visibility in the boundary layer. On the other hand, measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOy) mixing ratios showed rather high levels which are typical for the Arctic winter/spring time. Furthermore, during many flights thin layers with aerosol concentrations clearly higher than background were observed mainly in the lower and middle troposphere, clearly marked also by enhanced sulfur dioxide mixing ratios. Different composition of these layers in terms of aerosol properties and trace gases (e.g. particle absorption coefficient, non-volatile particle fraction, carbon monoxide, NOy) point to different sources of these layers, including smelting, fossil fuel burning and biomass burning at lower latitudes). We will use the comparison to the ASTAR 2004 and other measurements to assess the overall perturbation or "cleanliness" of the Arctic troposphere in terms of particle properties.

lead-author:: Andreas Minikin, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

co-authors:: 'Hans Schlager; DLR; Oberpfaffenhofen; Germany'; 'Frank Arnold; Max-Planck-Institut f\xc3\xbcr Kernphysik; Heidelberg; Germany'; 'Radovan Krejci; Department of Meteorology; Stockholm University; Sweden'; 'Ann-Christine Engvall; Department of Meteorology; Stockholm University; Sweden (now at: NILU; Kjeller; Norway)'; 'Andreas D\xc3\xb6rnbrack; DLR; Oberpfaffenhofen; Germany'; 'Andreas Stohl; NILU; Kjeller; Norway';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Sarah

last-name:: Monks

institute:: University of Leeds

country:: UK

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-France

title-1:: Investigating long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic troposphere using aircraft observations, satellite data and a global chemical transport model

abstract:: Previous comparisons of global chemical transport models have shown that they exhibit large variability in their Arctic chemical budgets, indicating that the processes controlling Arctic tropospheric composition are not well understood or represented within models. During summer 2008, the POLARCAT campaign collected an extensive gas-phase and aerosol dataset within the Arctic troposphere, which will aid the evaluation of our understanding of oxidant photochemistry and aerosol processing in the region. Here, we use these new trace-gas observations from the French ATR, Russian Yak and German DLR Falcon aircraft combined with observations from the TES instrument aboard the AURA satellite to evaluate the ability of a global chemical transport model (TOMCAT) to simulate the summertime transport of pollutants to the Arctic. In particular, we aim to quantify the impact of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources on the Arctic tropospheric ozone budget. Initial results show that the model underestimates observed concentrations of CO which has led to a re-evaluation of the different sources of CO to the region. Boreal biomass burning plumes were sampled frequently over the course of the campaign. Meteorological conditions defined two distinct periods where the region around Greenland was influenced by Canadian biomass burning (4th July – 9th July) and Siberian biomass burning (10th July – 17th July) plumes. Modelled trace gas budgets in the Arctic are highly sensitive to the treatment of boreal biomass burning emissions, therefore, accurate representation of emission injection heights and fire locations is essential. Model CO is improved greatly with real-time satellite derived daily biomass burning emissions, however large uncertainties in these emissions result in large variability in the Arctic CO budget. Sensitivity simulations have been performed to find the best estimate of the injection height of biomass emissions to produce best model reproduction of observed CO. We also present preliminary findings on then relative impacts of anthropogenic and biomass sources on the Arctic ozone and NOy budgets.

lead-author:: Sarah Monks, Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, UK

co-authors:: 'Steve Arnold (Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; University of Leeds; UK)'; 'Martyn Chipperfield (Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; University of Leeds; UK)'; 'Nigel Richards (Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; University of Leeds; UK)'; 'Gerard Ancellet (LATMOS; CNRS; IPSL/; UPMC Universite Paris 06; France)'; 'Kathy Law (LATMOS; CNRS; IPSL/; UPMC Universite Paris 06; France)'; 'Philippe Nedelec (LA/OMP; CNRS-UPS; Toulouse; France) '; 'Jean-Daniel Paris (LSCE/IPSL; joint unit CEA-CNRS-UVSQ; Gif-sur-Yvette; France)'; 'Hans Schlager (Deutsch Zentrum Luftund Raumfahrt; Inst Phys Atmosphaere; Oberpfaffenhofen; Germany)'; 'Solene Turquety (Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique / IPSL; UPMC Universite Paris 06; Ecole Polytechnique; Palaiseau; France)';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Curtis

last-name:: Moore

institute:: Not afilliated with an Institute

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: None

title-1:: Adverse Health and Non-Climate Environmental Impacts of Black Carbon , Ozone and Other Short-Lived Causes of Global Warming

abstract:: A number of the pollutants that increase warming globally, and especially in the Arctic and other high latitude regions, also cause death, illness and non-climate adverse environmental impacts. Black carbon, for example, causes death and in children is associated with irreversible symptomatic changes (e.g decline in forced expiratory volume)that are, in turn, associated with development of chronic obstructive lung disease in later life. COPD is the third leading cause of respiratory death, trailing only active and passive tobacco smoking. Indoor exposures to black carbon are estimated to cause 5 million deaths in infants and children annually. Ozone, in addition to causing death and serious adverse health effects, such as asthma onset and aggravation, is also a potent phytotoxin, reducing crop yields and forest productivity. This presentation will briefly review the literature on these subjects and suggest ways in which atmospheric concentrations could be reduced and qualitatively estimate the non-climate benefits that would accrue.

lead-author:: Moore, C., Editor and Publisher, Health & Clean Air Newsletter.

co-authors:: 'None at present; but I am soliciting co-authors.';

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: Jean-Daniel

last-name:: Paris

institute:: LSCE/IPSL

country:: France

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-France/Yak-AEROSIB

title-1:: Large-scale trace gases and aerosols distribution over Siberia: Background and biomass burning plumes during YAK-AEROSIB July 2008 campaigns

abstract:: The composition of the Siberian troposphere remains highly unknown due to a lack of measurements in this area. Siberia is a key region for a quantified understanding of many land-atmosphere exchange processes. As an example, Siberian forest fire emissions are a major extratropical source of CO to the atmosphere. Fire-emitted trace gases and particles are subject to long-range transport and may contribute to pollution of nearby Arctic. In an experimental effort to address this issue and to increase our knowledge of the properties of the Siberian troposphere, CO, O3, CO2 as well as black carbon (BC) and particles size distribution were measured onboard a research aircraft in the frame of the YAK-AEROSIB project, as a contribution to the Summer 2008 POLARCAT programme. Two large scale transects were established over Northern and Central Siberia between 7 and 29 July 2008. The aircraft flight pattern consisted of ramp ascents and descents so as to sample as many vertical profiles as possible. The dataset reveals a pervasive, steep vertical gradient in O3 concentrations, with low (20 ppb) values close to the ground. CO concentrations typically ranged between 90 and 105 ppb, stronger background concentrations being observed at lower latitudes. On 11 July 2008 a number of biomass burning plumes were encountered with CO concentration enhancements up to 600 ppb relative to a background of 90ppb. The BC concentrations were well correlated to CO, with peak values at 1.4 ug m-3 against a background of 0.01-0.05 ug m-3. A Lagrangian modelling analysis (FLEXPART) revealed that the aircraft sampled fire plumes from regional fire emissions, east of Yakutsk. The observed fire plumes are also characterized by anomalies in O3 and excess particle concentrations. Aerosols in the size range 3.5 – 200 nm peaked at 4000 cm-3 STP. This case study suggests that atmospheric chemistry-transport models can underestimate transport to the Arctic depending on their ability to represent synoptic events and the resulting injection of tracers in the troposphere. The plumes possibly associated to pyroconvection were not injected at altitudes higher than 3 – 4 km, i.e. within or immediately above the boundary layer. These data provide new constraints on our understanding of forest fire plume transport and chemistry. They also constitute a critical test bench for the models used to assess pyrogenic emissions and to predict transport of pollution to the Arctic and at the global scale.

lead-author:: Jean-Daniel Paris, LSCE/IPSL, joint unit CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

co-authors:: 'Mikhail Yu. Arshinov; Institute of Atmospheric Optics; SB-RAS; Tomsk; Russia'; 'Philippe N\xc3\xa9d\xc3\xa9lec; Laboratoire d\xe2\x80\x99A\xc3\xa9rologie; CNRS-UPS; Toulouse; France'; 'Andreas Stohl; Norwegian Institute for Air Research; Kjeller; Norway'; 'Boris D. Belan; Institute of Atmospheric Optics; SB-RAS; Tomsk; Russia'; 'Mikhail Panchenko; Institute of Atmospheric Optics; SB-RAS; Tomsk; Russia'; 'Philippe Ciais; LSCE/IPSL; joint unit CEA-CNRS-UVSQ; Gif-sur-Yvette; France';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Trish

last-name:: Quinn

institute:: NOAA PMEL

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ICEALOT

title-1:: Trends and Properties of Tropospheric Aerosols that Undergo Long-Range Transport to the Arctic

abstract:: Tropospheric aerosol particles undergo long range transport from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic each winter and spring. Once in the Arctic, aerosols may impact regional climate in several ways. Aerosols can affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and altering cloud properties. In addition, absorbing aerosol that is deposited onto ice and snow can lower the surface albedo and enhance the ice-albedo feedback mechanism. Measurements of aerosol properties relevant to climate forcing (chemical composition, light scattering, and light absorption) have been made by NOAA at Barrow, AK (71.3°N) for over a decade. In addition, for much of this same time period, measurements of aerosol chemical composition have been made at the three more southern Alaskan sites of Poker Flat (65°N), Denali National Park (63.5°N), and Homer (59.7°N). Measurements of sulfate at Barrow reveal a decreasing trend over the past decade of about 1.6% per year for the month of April. This decrease is similar to what has been observed for aerosol light scattering over the same period. Concentrations of sulfate during the Arctic Haze season are highest at Barrow as the Brooks Range hinders transport to the more southerly sites. During the summer, however, concentrations are highest at Homer as a result of biogenic activity. Trends in other species also will be presented and compared for the four sites. In addition, aerosol properties measured at Barrow will be compared to those measured in the European Arctic during the ICEALOT cruise in spring of 2008.

lead-author:: Trish Quinn, NOAA PMEL, Seattle, WA USA

co-authors:: 'Glenn Shaw; University of Alaska; Fairbanks; AK USA'; 'Tim Bates; NOAA PMEL; Seattle; WA; USA'; 'Derek Coffman; NOAA PMEL; Seattle; WA; USA'; 'Kristen Schulz; NOAA PMEL; Seattle; WA; USA'; 'Anne Jefferson; NOAA ESRL; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'John Ogren; NOAA ESRL; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'John Burkhart; NILU; Kjeller; Norway';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes', 'Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Anke

last-name:: Roiger

institute:: DLR

country:: Germany

polarcat-project:: GRACE

title-1:: Aircraft measurements of Canadian and Siberian biomass burning plumes in the European Arctic

abstract:: We report on chemical aircraft measurements in pollution plumes transported into the European sector of the Arctic from forest fires in Canada and Siberia. These observations were part of the POLARCAT subproject GRACE (Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment (GRACE)) performed in July 2008 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft. We detected more than 30 distinct pollution plumes with enhanced CO and NOy mixing ratios of up to 300 and 1.5 ppbv, respectively. The observed PAN/NOy ratios in the fire plumes range between 50 and 80%. Mostly negative O3/CO correlations were found indicating low photochemical activity in the fire plumes during transport into the Arctic. According to FLEXPART analysis, the plumes were sampled after transport times of 5-10 days from Canadian fires and 10-15 days from Siberian fires. Very often, fire emissions were mixed with emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as indicated by the FLEXPART results. Differences observed between the Canadian and Siberian fire plumes will be discussed.

lead-author:: A. Roiger, DLR - Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Germany

co-authors:: 'H. Schlager; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'M. Scheibe; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'M. Lichtenstern; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'P. Stock; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'H. Ziereis; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'H. Aufmhoff; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'H. Huntrieser; DLR - Institut f\xc3\xbcr Physik der Atmosph\xc3\xa4re; Germany'; 'F. Arnold; Max-Planck-Institut f\xc3\xbcr Kernphysik; Atmosph\xc3\xa4renphysik; Heidelberg; Germany'; 'A. Stohl; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway'; 'H. Sodemann; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway'; 'J. Burkhardt; Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU); Kjeller; Norway';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic']

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first-name:: Philip

last-name:: Russell

institute:: NASA Ames Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Arctic Aerosols and Radiation: Results from ARCTAS Spring and Summer 2008

abstract:: The two deployments of ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere using Aircraft and Satellites) in Spring and Summer 2008 included a broad suite of measurements and models describing Arctic aerosols, their radiative impacts, and Arctic surface radiative properties. Included were measurements from air, space, and surface platforms during episodes of Arctic haze and biomass burning, with measurements guided by models of atmospheric composition and transport. This talk summarizes key results to date.

lead-author:: Philip B. Russell, NASA Ames Research Center

co-authors:: 'Numerous ARCTAS PIs; platform scientists; and modelers as appropriate';

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic']

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first-name:: Tom

last-name:: Ryerson

institute:: NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCPAC

title-1:: Emissions, transport, and chemistry downwind of oil extraction facilities in the Alaskan Arctic

abstract:: Airborne data from the NOAA WP-3D (ARCPAC) and the NASA DC-8 (ARCTAS) instrumented aircraft during April 2008 are used to quantify relative and absolute emission rates from oil extraction facilities on the Alaskan North Slope, including Prudhoe Bay. These data, combined with transport model analysis, provide a measure of greenhouse gas source strength due to current industrial operations in the high Arctic. Chemical transformation rates downwind are also determined from point and area source plumes. Finally, signatures of halogen oxidation in the NOx-rich Prudhoe Bay plume are apparent, and may provide a new constraint on halogen-catalyzed ozone depletion time scales in the Arctic.

lead-author:: Thomas B. Ryerson, NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA

co-authors:: 'Jeff Peischl; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'John Nowak; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'John Holloway; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Brad Pierce; NOAA NESDIS/STAR; Camp Springs; MD; USA'; 'Julie Cozic; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Jerome Brioude; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Owen Cooper; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Andrew Neuman; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Michael Trainer; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Chuck Brock; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Dan Murphy; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Steve Montzka; NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Lloyd Miller; NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Carsten Warneke; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Joost de Gouw; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Andy Weinheimer; NCAR Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'David Knapp; NCAR Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Stephanie Vay; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; USA'; 'Don Blake; University of California; Irvine; CA; USA'; 'Glenn Diskin; NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA; USA'; 'Armin Wisthaler; University of Innsbruck; Innsbruck; Austria'; 'Eric Apel; NCAR Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Greg Huey; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; GA; USA'; 'Paul Wennberg; California Institute of Technology; Pasadena; CA; USA'; 'Ed Dlugokencky; NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division; Boulder; CO; USA'; 'Fred Fehsenfeld; NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division; Boulder; CO; USA';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Hans

last-name:: Schlager

institute:: DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany

country:: Germany

polarcat-project:: GRACE

title-1:: POLARCAT-GRACE: Overview and Findings

abstract:: During the POLARCAT subproject GRACE (Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment) the DLR Falcon research aircraft was used to study the chemical composition and aerosol properties in the European sector of the Arctic in summer 2008. The Falcon was based in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, for a period of three weeks and performed 20 flights covering an extended range of latitudes (58°-81°N), longitudes (65°W-15°E), and altitudes (0-12 km). The Falcon missions included survey flights in the UT/LS, sampling of elevated pollution plumes, and quasi-Lagrangian experiments including the probing of air masses already measured by ARCTAS aircraft upwind of the GRACE investigation area and the release of a chemical tracer to study plume dispersion. We found that the entire free troposphere between 4 and 10 km was strongly polluted by emissions imported from both, forest fires and source regions with fossil fuel combustion in North America, Siberia and East Asia. During flight sections in the UT we detected also significant in-mixing of stratospheric air masses. Overall, we sampled more than 30 distinct pollution plumes with largely enhanced concentrations in CO, PAN, NOy, and accumulation mode aerosol. We discuss the origin and pathways of the pollution plumes using air mass backward trajectories and FLEXPART analysis and differences/similarities in the chemical composition and microphysical aerosol properties observed.

lead-author:: Hans Schlager, DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

co-authors:: 'GRACE Science team';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Julia

last-name:: Schmale

institute:: Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry

country:: Germany

polarcat-project:: Polarcat-France Summer

title-1:: Airborne Detection of Various Pollution Plumes in the Arctic by Aerosol Mass Spectrometry during the Polarcat-France Summer Campaign

abstract:: During the POLARCAT-France summer campaign an Aerodyne C-ToF aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was operated during 8 flights from Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, in which altitudes from 400 m up to 7000 m in the free troposphere were covered. The AMS measures non-refractory chemical species in submicron particles providing mass concentrations and size distributions and was operated at a time resolution of 30 seconds, corresponding to a spatial resolution of about 3 km. Generally, Arctic Air in the free troposphere was found to contain very low concentrations of submicron particulate matter, typically between 0.1 and 0.5 µg m-3, however, several distinct layers could be identified due to elevated sulfate aerosol concentrations. Back-trajectories reveal that these air masses originated in North America for flights until July 8 and in Asia/Siberia for the later flights. Emissions could be allocated partly to biomass burning in Canada and Siberia and also anthropogenic activities in the USA and China. In these pollution plumes sulfate was the predominant aerosol species. Nevertheless, some elevations in the organic and nitrate signals could also be detected. Additionally, it was found that high particulate sulfate concentrations were accompanied by elevated ozone mixing ratios resulting in a positive correlation. Size distributions of sulfate containing aerosol particles were all found to be in the accumulation mode with a modal vacuum aerodynamic diameter around 500 nm.

lead-author:: Julia Schmale, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Particle Chemistry Department, Mainz, Germany

co-authors:: 'J. Schneider; Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry; Particle Chemistry Department; Mainz; Germany'; 'M. Brands; Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry; Particle Chemistry Department; Mainz; Germany; Institute for Atmospheric Physics; Johannes Gutenberg University; Mainz; Germany'; 'G. Ancellet; LATMOS; Universit\xc3\xa9 Pierre et Marie Curie; Paris; France'; 'J. Pelon; LATMOS; Universit\xc3\xa9 Pierre et Marie Curie; Paris; France'; 'S. R. Arnold; Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; School of Earth and Environment; University of Leeds; UK '; 'A. Schwarzenboeck; Laboratoire de M\xc3\xa9t\xc3\xa9orologie Physique; Universit\xc3\xa9 Blaise Pascal; Aubi\xc3\xa8re; France '; 'B. Quennehen; Laboratoire de M\xc3\xa9t\xc3\xa9orologie Physique; Universit\xc3\xa9 Blaise Pascal; Aubi\xc3\xa8re; France '; 'C. Gourbeyre; Laboratoire de M\xc3\xa9t\xc3\xa9orologie Physique; Universit\xc3\xa9 Blaise Pascal; Aubi\xc3\xa8re; France'; 'S. Borrmann; Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry; Particle Chemistry Department; Mainz; Germany; Institute for Atmospheric Physics; Johannes Gutenberg University; Mainz; Germany'; 'K. S. Law; LATMOS; Universit\xc3\xa9 Pierre et Marie Curie; Paris; France';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Yohei

last-name:: Shinozuka

institute:: NASA Ames Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Aerosol optical depth observed from P-3 during ARCTAS

abstract:: The AOD measured with Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer has many applications such as radiation studies and satellite validation. To explain what contribute to the AOD it is often useful to look at the aerosol size distribution and chemical mass that the University of Hawaii group (HiGEAR) measured at aircraft level. We have checked consistency between HiGEAR and AATS operations during ARCTAS by integrating the local in-situ light extinction over altitude and comparing the result with the direct measurement of column AOD. These two layer AODs agree within 10% + 0.02 of each other at 450, 550 and 700 nm for two thirds of 35 spirals made over an altitude gain/loss greater than 1 km under clear sky. Almost all of the data points out of these bounds are associated with high spatial variability in aerosol scattering, in most cases caused by forest fire smoke. Also, the AODs agreed with ground-based AERONET AOD observations within 0.02 at all wavelengths except 1.6 um. The high degree of consistency demonstrated here supports the use of optical measurements for characterizing the aerosol types and assessing their radiative effects.

lead-author:: Yohei Shinozuka

co-authors:: 'Yohei Shinozuka; Jens Redemann; John Livingston; Phil Russell; Roy Johnson; S Ramachandran (NASA Ames Research Center)'; ''; 'Tony Clarke; Cameron McNaughton; Steffen Freitag; Steve Howell; Volodia Kapustin; Vera Brekhovskikh (University of Hawaii)'; ' '; "Brent Holben; Norm O'Neill; Bruce McArthur and Alain Royer (AERONET)";

session:: ['Session 2: Aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic', 'Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere', 'Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Hanwant

last-name:: Singh

institute:: NASA Ames Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Ozone/NOx/HOx chemistry during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign

abstract:: A large set of photochemical and precursor species (O3, reactive nitrogen, HOx, VOCs, OVOCs, peroxides, and tracers) were measured during the ARCTAS spring and summer campaigns of 2008. The arctic/subarctic troposphere was impacted by long-range transport of pollution from Asia, North America, and Europe. Several instances of very low boundary layer ozone along with high free tropospheric ozone, frequently mixed with stratospheric air, were sampled and characterized. The Ozone/NOx/HOx photochemical system was investigated in detail under pristine conditions as well conditions influenced by fresh and aged pollution principally from boreal fire emissions. Preliminary model simulations have been performed to interpret the ozone behavior in the ARCTAS domain.

lead-author:: Hanwant B. Singh

co-authors:: 'The ARCTAS Science Team';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

first-name:: Hanwant

last-name:: Singh

institute:: NASA Ames Research Center

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Ozone/NOx/HOx chemistry

abstract:: Not yet available

lead-author:: hanwant Singh

co-authors:: 'many';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Harald

last-name:: Sodemann

institute:: NILU

country:: Norway

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT Norway

title-1:: Simulating cross-polar pollution transport during POLARCAT-GRACE

abstract:: The POLARCAT-GRACE campaign was targeted at aircraft and satellite-remote sensing observations of biomass burning emission transport into the Arctic. During two episodes (2-5 July and 7-10 July 2008) extended smoke plumes originating from large Siberian forest fires were advected directly across the North Pole and into the European Arctic. The focus of this work is on the ability of models to correctly simulate cross-polar pollution transport. Close to the pole, depending on the underlying horizontal grid in a model, numerical artifacts can be created, which potentially lead to considerable latitudinal displacements and structural distortion of pollution features. Here we compare transport simulations of total column carbon monoxide (CO) for the FLEXPART model (with and without polar stereographic projection) and the TOMCAT model with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The multi-model approach allows to separate the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. First results indicate very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields.

lead-author:: Harald Sodemann, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2027 Kjeller, Norway

co-authors:: 'Steve Arnold; Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; School of Earth and Environment; University of Leeds; Leeds; UK'; 'John Burkhart; Norwegian Institute for Air Research; 2027 Kjeller; Norway'; 'Sarah Monks; Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science; School of Earth and Environment; University of Leeds; Leeds; UK'; 'Matthieu Pommier; UPMC Univ Paris 06; CNRS UMR8190; LATMOS/IPSL; Paris; France'; 'Andreas Stohl; Norwegian Institute for Air Research; 2027 Kjeller; Norway'; 'Sol\xc3\xa8ne Turquety; Ecole Polytechnique; CNRS UMR 8539; LMD/IPSL; Palaiseau; France';

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Brian

last-name:: Stocks

institute:: B.J. Stocks Wildfire Investigations. Ltd.

country:: Canada

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Canadian and Siiberian Boreal Fire Activity during ARCTAS Spring and Summer Phases

abstract:: While the summer phase of ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) was designed specifically around forest fire activity in the Canadian boreal forest, the significant contribution of Siberian fires to arctic haze during the Alaska-based spring phase of ARCTAS was a surprise to many. This presentation deals with boreal fire activity during the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS, with specific emphasis on fire weather and fire danger conditions, fire occurrence, and fire behavior. Measured fire behavior parameters, including fuel consumption, spread rates, and energy-release (intensity) levels will be compared with smoke column development and smoke injection heights.

lead-author:: ARCTAS Boreal Fire Team

co-authors:: 'Mike Fromm (Naval Research Laboratory; Washington; DC; USA)'; 'Brian Stocks (B.J. Stocks Wildfire Investigations Ltd.; Sault Ste. Marie; ON; Canada)'; 'Amber Soja (National Institute of Aerospace; Hampton; VA; USA)'; 'Ed Hyer (Naval Research Laboratory; Monterey; CA; USA)'; 'Rene Servranckx (Canadian Meteorological Centre; Dorval; QC; Canada)'; 'Dan Lindsey (NOAA NESDIS; Ft. Collins; CO; USA)';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic']

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first-name:: Andreas

last-name:: Stohl

institute:: Norwegian Institute for Air Research

country:: Norway

polarcat-project:: POLARCAT-Norway

title-1:: Source regions of short-lived pollutants observed at Arctic observatories

abstract::

lead-author:: Hirdman, David

co-authors:: 'K. Aspmo; John F. Burkhart; S. Eckhardt; H. Sodemann; and many others';

session:: ['Session 1: Transport processes']

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first-name:: Jochen

last-name:: Stutz

institute:: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, UCLA

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: GSHOX

title-1:: Greenland Summit HOx/Halogen Experiment 2007 and 2008

abstract:: Reactive halogens in Arctic regions and their impact on ozone levels have been a subject of intensive research since the mid 1980s, in particular studies have focused on regions close to first-year sea ice. Less is known about halogens in polar regions removed from the oceans, such as the Greenland ice sheet. Motivated by discrepancies between observed and modeled RO2/OH ratios and other indirect evidence of halogen chemistry, two field campaigns have been conducted at Summit, Greenland (altitude 3.2 km, latitude = 72.55°N), in May/June 2007 and June/July 2008. The purpose of these studies was to measure air and snow properties with a particular focus on halogen and HOx chemistry at Summit. A description of the experimental set up and results from the campaigns will be presented. BrO mixing ratios up to several ppt were observed by CIMS and long-path DOAS in both years. Soluble gas phase bromide was also present at mixing ratios of up to several ppt. These findings are supported by the observation of significant production of reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) from Hg0 (GEM). Micrometeorological measurements have been used to study the impact of local mixing processes on the halogen mixing ratios. In order to understand the chemical and physical processes occurring during these field experiments we have also developed a new 1D model for snow physics and chemistry, coupled to the boundary layer model MISTRA. Model results show the importance of gas exchange at the snow surface as well at the composition of the liquid layer on snow grains are factors that govern ambient concentrations of NOx and gas phase bromine in the model. The model indicates that the observed bromine can be explained by chemical release from the snow pack.

lead-author:: Jochen Stutz

co-authors:: 'J Stutz; Dept Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; UCLA; Los Angeles; CA '; 'DR Blake; Dept of Chemistry; UC - Irvine; Irvine; CA '; 'S Brooks; Air Resources Laboratory; NOAA ATDD; Oak Ridge; TN '; 'G Chen; NASA; Langley Research Center; Hampton; VA '; 'K Gorham; Dept of Chemistry; UC - Irvine; Irvine; CA'; 'B Lefer; Dept of Geosciences; University of Houston; Houston; TX '; 'JE Dibb; Climate Change Research Center; University of New Hampshire; Durham; NH '; 'C Haman; Dept of Geosciences; University of Houston; Houston; TX '; 'LG Huey; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; GA'; 'SC Hurlock; Dept Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; UCLA; Los Angeles; CA '; 'T Kahan; Chemistry Department; University of Toronto; Toronto; Canada '; 'J Liao; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; GA'; 'J Luxford; Climate Change Research Center; University of New Hampshire; Durham; NH'; 'D Tanner; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta; GA '; 'JL Thomas; Dept Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; UCLA; Los Angeles; CA '; 'von Glasow; R; School of Environmental Sciences; University of East Anglia; Norwich; UK'; 'L Ziemba; Climate Change Research Center; University of New Hampshire; Durham; NH ';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: David

last-name:: Tarasick

institute:: Environment Canada

country:: Canada

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: An Overview of the ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARC-IONS) soundings: Spring Depletion, Summer Pollution

abstract:: During NASA’s ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere with Aircraft and Satellites; http://espo.nasa.gov/arctas) spring and summer 2008 campaigns, an ozonesonde network, ARC-IONS (ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study), launched ozonesonde-radiosonde packages each day (1-20 April, 26 June-12 July) during the A-Train satellite constellation overpass, ~1300 local. Seventeen ARC-IONS stations were located across the northern tier of North America, Alaska, Canada, with one site in Greenland and two in the western US; map at . In addition to satellite validation, the soundings provided a coherent, well-distributed set of ozone profiles for: (1) comparison with and interpretation of airborne measurements; (2) complementarity to ARCTAS and IPY (International Polar Year) ground bases at Greenland, Barrow, Eureka, Yellowknife; (3) model evaluation; (4) investigations of processes affecting day-to-day ozone variability. Two aspects of tropospheric ozone variability are described here. Firstly, surface ozone depletion likely associated with rapid halogen reactions is prominent in spring at Barrow (71N, 157W) and Resolute (75N, 95W). Secondly, during summer, relationships among long-range transport of Asian pollution (industrial and fires), California and Canadian fires and daily ozone budgets are established with trajectories, satellite smoke/fire data and laminar identification (Thompson et al., 2007; Yorks et al., 2009). Eastern North American stations display fire impacts, eastern seaboard pollution and stratospheric influences as during ICARTT and IONS-04 (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study; Tarasick et al., 2007; Thompson et al., 2007).

lead-author:: Anne M Thompson, The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Meteorology, 503 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802-5013 USA; anne@met.psu.edu; 814-865-0479; fax-814-865-3663

co-authors:: 'D.W. Tarasick; Environment Canada; 4905 Dufferin Street; Downsview; ON; Canada M3H 5T4; david.tarasick@ec.gc.ca; 416-739-4623; fax: 416-739-4281'; 'S.J. Oltmans; NOAA/GMD-ESRL; Boulder; CO 80305; '; 'J.C. Witte; SSAI of Lanham; MD 20706 USA; also at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center; Greenbelt; MD 20771 USA'; '& ARC-IONS Team';

session:: ['Session 4: Composition and chemistry of the Arctic troposphere']

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first-name:: Dave

last-name:: Winker

institute:: NASA Langley Res. Ctr.

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCTAS

title-1:: Arctic aerosols and CALIPSO

abstract:: The CALIPSO satellite, launched in April 2006, carries a two-wavelength polarization lidar which provides the first satellite observations of aerosols in the Arctic. While not as sensitive as airborne lidars, the CALIPSO lidar identifies regions of enhanced aerosol loading and can be used for evaluating model predictions of aerosol distribution and transport. The lidar has inherently high vertical resolution and observes aerosol both day and night. Lidar retrievals provide profiles of aerosol extinction. An overview of CALIPSO capabilities and results of initial investigations of Arctic aerosols will be presented.

lead-author:: Dave Winker, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Session 5: Models and satellite data during POLARCAT']

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first-name:: Catherine

last-name:: Witherspoon

institute:: ClimateWorks

country:: United States

polarcat-project:: not applicable

title-1::

abstract::

lead-author::

co-authors:: ;

session:: ['Participant only']

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first-name:: first-name

last-name:: last-name

institute:: institute

country:: country

polarcat-project:: polarcat-project

title-1:: title-1

abstract:: abstract

lead-author:: lead-author

co-authors:: co-authors;

session:: session

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first-name:: carsten

last-name:: warneke

institute:: NOAA Chemical Sciences Division

country:: USA

polarcat-project:: ARCPAC

title-1:: Biomass burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source for haze over the Alaskan Arctic in April 2008

abstract:: During ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) the airborne field experiment in April in northern Alaska, more than 50 biomass burning plumes were encountered. The measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART showed that the plumes were emitted by forest fires in the Lake Baikal area of Siberia and by agricultural burning in Kazakhstan and southern Russia. Emissions from the two fire types were chemically different with higher enhancement ratios relative to CO for most gas and aerosol species from the agricultural fires. These biomass burning emissions were the dominant contributor to the haze encountered in this area during April. In 2008, the fire season started earlier than usual in Siberia, which may have resulted in a more efficient transport of biomass burning emissions into the polar dome thereby further increasing the already strong influence of boreal forest fire emissions on Arctic Haze. FLEXPART compared quantitatively well to the measurements and therefore can be used to quantitatively determine the total amount of CO and other trace gases and aerosol injected into the Arctic from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources during the ARCPAC period. The analysis shows that at the end of April 2008 more CO from biomass burning entered the Arctic than from anthropogenic sources and that biomass burning significantly contributed to the total loadings of aerosols and trace gases in the Arctic.

lead-author:: Carsten Warneke

co-authors:: 'ARCPAC science team';

session:: ['Session 3: Biomass burning and its effects on the Arctic']

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